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徽派建筑的广泛性应用

来源:http://www.ahanyun.com/news/419.html 发布日期:2021-11-24

徽派古建筑以砖、木、石为原料,以木构架为主。梁架多用料硕大,且注重装饰。其横梁中部略微拱起,故民间俗称为“冬瓜梁”,两端雕出扁圆形(明代)或圆形(清代)花纹,中段常雕有多种图案,通体显得恢宏、华丽、壮美。立柱用料也颇粗大,上部稍细。明代立柱通常为梭形。梁托、爪柱、叉手、霸拳、雀替(明代为丁头拱)、斜撑等大多雕刻花纹、线脚。梁架构件的巧妙组合和装修使工艺技术与艺术手法相交融,达到了珠联璧合的妙境。梁架一般不施彩漆而髹以桐油,显得格外古朴典雅。墙角、天井、栏杆、照壁、漏窗等用青石、红砂石或花岗岩裁割成石条、石板筑就,且往往利用石料本身的自然纹理组合成图纹。墙体基本使用小青砖砌至马头墙。

The ancient architecture of Hui style takes brick, wood and stone as raw materials and mainly uses wood frame. The beam frame is multi-purpose, with huge materials and pays attention to decoration. The middle of the crossbeam is slightly arched, so it is commonly known as "white gourd beam" among the people. Flat circular (Ming Dynasty) or circular (Qing Dynasty) patterns are carved at both ends. A variety of patterns are often carved in the middle, which makes the whole body look magnificent, gorgeous and magnificent. The material used for the column is also quite thick, and the upper part is slightly thin. The columns in the Ming Dynasty were usually shuttle shaped. Beam brackets, claw columns, fork hands, baquan, queti (Ding tou arch in the Ming Dynasty), diagonal braces, etc. are mostly carved with patterns and moldings. The ingenious combination and decoration of beam frame components make the integration of process technology and artistic techniques, reaching a wonderful situation of perfect combination. The beam frame is usually painted with tung oil instead of color paint, which is particularly simple and elegant. Wall corners, patios, railings, screen walls and leaky windows are cut into stone strips and slabs with bluestone, red sandstone or granite, and often combined into patterns by using the natural texture of the stone itself. The wall is basically built with small green bricks to the horse head wall.

徽派建筑还广泛采用砖、木、石雕,表现出高超的装饰艺术水平。砖雕大多镶嵌在门罩、窗楣、照壁上,在大块的青砖上雕刻着生动逼真的人物、虫鱼、花鸟及八宝、博古和几何图案,富装饰效果。木雕在古民居雕刻装饰中占主要地位,表现在月梁头上的线刻纹样,平盘斗上的莲花墩,屏门隔扇、窗扇和窗下挂板、楼层拱杆栏板及天井四周的望柱头等。内容广泛,多人物、山水、花草、鸟兽及八宝、博古。题材众多,有传统戏曲、民间故事、神话传说和渔、樵、耕、读、宴饮、品茗、出行、乐舞等生活场景。手法多样,有线刻、浅浮雕、高浮雕透雕、圆雕和镂空雕等。其表现内容和手法因不同的建筑部位而各异。这些木雕均不饰油漆,而是通过高品质的木材色泽和自然纹理,使雕刻的细部更显生动。石雕主要表现在祠堂、寺庙、牌坊、塔、桥及民居的庭院、门额、栏杆、水池、花台、漏窗、照壁、柱础、抱鼓石、石狮等上面。内容多为象征吉祥的龙风、仙鹤、猛虎、雄狮、大象、博古和山水风景、人物故事等。
Hui style buildings also widely use brick, wood and stone carvings, showing a superb level of decorative art. Brick carvings are mostly inlaid on the door cover, window lintel and screen wall. On large green bricks, vivid characters, insects, fish, flowers and birds, eight treasures, Bogu and geometric patterns are carved, which is rich in decorative effect. Wood carving plays a major role in the carving and decoration of ancient folk houses, which is reflected in the line carved patterns on the head of the moon beam, the lotus pier on the flat bucket, the partition leaf of the screen door, the window sash and the hanging plate under the window, the arch bar breast board of the floor and the column head around the patio. It has a wide range of contents, including many people, landscapes, flowers and plants, birds and animals, eight treasures and Bogu. There are many themes, including traditional operas, folk stories, myths and legends, and life scenes such as fishing, woodcutting, farming, reading, banquet, tea tasting, travel, music and dance. There are various techniques, such as wire carving, shallow relief, high relief openwork, round carving and hollow carving. The contents and techniques of expression vary according to different architectural parts. These wood carvings are not decorated with paint, but make the details more vivid through high-quality wood color and natural texture. Stone carvings are mainly displayed in ancestral halls, temples, memorial archways, towers, bridges and courtyards of folk houses, door forehead, railings, pools, flower beds, leaky windows, screen walls, column foundations, drum stones, stone lions, etc. The contents are mostly dragon wind, crane, tiger, lion, elephant, Bogu, landscape, character stories, etc.

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